Stone Sentinels, battlefield monuments of the American Civil War
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First Corps HQ FlagFirst Army Corps

The monument to the First Army Corps is west of Gettysburg on Reynolds Avenue. It was erected by the Gettysburg National Military Park Commission in 1906. (39.836105° N, 77.249227° W; map)


Two First Corps Headquarters Markers were erected in 1913, the Doubleday marker on Reynolds Avenue (39.83558° N, 77.249578° W; map), and the Newton marker on Pleasonton Avenue (39.807784° N, 77.231656° W; map)


The markers consist of a 4.5" Siege Rifle embedded into a stone base. This type of cannon served with the Army of the Potomac during the Gettysburg campaign in two batteries of the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery, but the big guns were not brought to Gettysburg.


The First Corps went through three commanders in the three days of the Battle of Gettysburg. John Reynolds (see monument at Gettysburg) was mortally wounded early in the fighting on July 1st. The senior division commander, Abner Doubleday (see monument at Gettysburg), assumed command.


By all reports he did a good job in a difficult situation, but Meade had a low opinion of his abilities and replaced him with John Newton, a division commander from the Sixth Corps. Doubleday returned to his division command even though he was senior to Newton, but after Doubleday was lightly wounded he left the army, with a lifelong grudge against Meade.



From the Reynolds Avenue monument:


Army of the Potomac
First Corps
Major General John F. Reynolds
Major General Abner Doubleday
Major General John Newton


First Division Brigadier General James S. Wadsworth
Second Division Brigadier General John C. Robinson
Third Division Brigadier General Thomas A. Rowley
Major General Abner Doubleday
Artillery Brigade Colonel Charles S. Wainwright


July 1. Arrived at Gettysburg between 10 A. M. and noon. Relieved Buford's Cavalry and became engaged with Archer's and Davis's Brigades Heth's Division Hill's Corps. General Reynolds fell mortally wounded about 10.15 A. M. The Confederates having been reinforced from Hill's and Ewell's Corps made a vigorous attack at 2 P. M. with superior numbers along the entire line. At 4 P. M. the Corps retired and took positions on Culps Hill and Cemetery ridge.


July 2 & 3. Wadsworth's Division occupied the north point of Culps Hill connecting with 12th Corps on right and Robinson's and Rowley's Divisions on Cemetery Ridge with detachments elsewhere.


Casualties including Corps and Division Staff: Killed 42 Officers 624 Men Wounded 262 Officers 2969 Men Captured or Missing 80 Officers 2079 Men Total 6056



From the the Doubleday monument:


Army of the Potomac
1st Corps Headquarters,
Major General Abner Doubleday,
July 1 1863
were located 230 yards s.e.
from here near the Pike



From the Newton monument:


Army of the Potomac,
1st Corps Headquarters,
Major General John Newton,
July 2 & 3, 1863


First Corps, Army of the Potomac marker
(above) The First Corps monument at Gettysburg.
(below) Headquarters marker for Abner Doubleday on Reynolds Avenue

Headquarters marker for Abner DOubleday, commanding the First Corps at Gettysburg
(below) Headquarters marker for John Newton on Pleasonton Avenue Headquarters marker for John Newton, commanding the First Corps at Gettysburg
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